During Science we focused on a unit called astronomy and we had the choice of designing anything we desire to. In that case I chose my own topic, Lunar Eclipses and chose to work on a poster. These are the three essential questions that I researched about:

Why does Lunar Eclipses occur?

While I was working on this I had another question that was how does lunar eclipses occur and they had basically the same answer, so I decided to change one of my questions. Lunar Eclipses occur when the moon is orbiting around earth and stops behind the earth's umbra (shadow). The earth will cause the blockage of sunlight to the moon, therefore a lunar eclipse occur.

How often does a Lunar Eclipse occur?

A lunar eclipse only lasts for 7 minutes and 40 seconds but the maximum time a lunar eclipse can occur is 3 hours and 4 minutes. Not too many lunar eclipses occur in a year but it is still more common than a solar eclipse.

What is 'eclipse year' and 'eclipse season'?

When I was researching about this essential question an eclipse year and eclipse season had basically the same meaning. They are when the moon is orbiting around earth they have to be on the exact same line and the nodes (2 points) for a lunar eclipse to occur. If the moon is not perfectly in line with the earth and sun then it might give us partial eclipses.

Fun Fact: A lunar eclipse can only happen when it's a full moon and a solar eclipse can only happen when it's a new moon.

 

 

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CSI stands for Colour, Symbol and Image. My CSI is about the word Industrial Revolution. Industrial Revolution is the change in economic and social organization. The colour I chose was Brown because during the Industrial Revolution they had people who farmed and when people farmed,there were dirt involved in it. I chose the gear as my symbol since it is related to revolution and how it changes over time. The image I drew is a factory is because factories produce products and manufacture stuff for what people need.

Newton's Vehicle

While my group and I were designing our Newton Vehicle, we tried to put as light weighted materials on, so our vehicle will be able to travel easier and faster. Our vehicle consists of a cardboard base, a balloon on top of it, multiple straws and 4 wheels. (like shown in the picture) What I learned from designing our vehicle is that if you have a huge balloon (like we did) your balloon would get in the way of your vehicle. For example, when my group and I tested our vehicle, the balloon wouldn't let out much air instead the wheels would always get caught in between it. If I were to do this project again, I would change our vehicle's wheels into a more evenly shaped wheel because our current wheels are uneven, which causes our vehicle to to turn left or right, when it should be moving forward. While I did this project, I learned a lot more about Newton's 3 law of motion. Newton's first law of motion states that an object wouldn't move until you exert an equal force onto it. Whilst Newton's second law of motion explains that if an object has more mass, it requires more force to be exerted onto it. Newton's third law of motion tels us that for every force there will be a reaction: you will need to exert the same amount of force to the object/human, but in the opposite direction. If I had another chance to do a project related to this one, I would try to change the base of my vehicle, maybe using a tissue box, a bottle, or cups. But other than that, I wouldn't change anything else, and/or take any further steps. Another type of design I would like to experiment with is using the rubber band instead of a balloon, that way it'll probably would travel further.

Science

My vehicle indicates Newton's first law of motion, Newton's first law of motion means when you exert a force to an object/person so then it will move. When we let go of the balloon our vehicle will move the opposite direction. Newton's second law of motion means when the more mass an object has, the more force it requires for it to move. Our vehicle demonstrates Newton's second law of motion because instead of scrap paper, we used cardboard. Although scrap paper has less mass, scrap paper isn't strong enough to hold our balloon. We still made our vehicle as light weighted as possible, by just using sticks, straws and bottle caps for the wheels. Newton's third law of motion is also shown in our vehicle because it means that if a force is exerted on one side, the equal amount of force will be exerted on the opposite side. When we'll let go of our balloon, the air will come out from the back, while the car moves in front.

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Two years ago when I flew back to Singapore during summer holiday, my parents brought me to visit my relatives since I have not met them for over a year. My relatives invited my family and I to stay back for lunch. It was really nice to see my cousins and we had a lot of things to share. Suddenly, the electricity went off and so it soon became extremely hot. After 30 minutes of complaining about the heat, we lost appetite to eat so our aunts and uncles quickly brought us dessert. This dessert is called Ice Kacang, I was told that it is one of Singapore’s most famous dessert and that it isn’t a very cultural food in Singapore instead it is just a famous dessert. After taking a look at this dessert my appetite immediately became better. Ice Kacang has a mountain of ice on it with colourful syrups along with condensed milk, red beans and corn. When I took a bite from it, the heat immediately cooled off and I fell in love with this dessert at first bite. I then asked my aunts and uncles to give me the recipe, which they gladly gave it to me. They even gave me clear directions on how to make this dessert.

 

What you need:

  • Medium sized bowl
  • Ice shaver to cleanly shave ice into very small bits
  • Measuring cups and measuring spoons

 

Ingredients to make Ice Kacang:

  • 8 tablespoons sweet red beans
  • 8 tablespoons corn
  • 12 cups finely shaved ice
  • ⅔ cup condensed milk
  • 2 cups of sugar
  • 3 drops to each food colouring
  • 1-2 tablespoons of crushed peanuts (optional)

 

Directions:

  1. Rinse the red beans several times in water, then transfer the beans into a pot and fill it with water, just so it covers the beans. After that soak the beans for 4 hours. After 4 hours, you rinse the beans again and then fill it with 6 cups of water. Then you bring it to boil for 1 hour until the beans are cooked thoroughly. When the red beans are cooked thoroughly, add sugar and salt and leave it to simmer for 1 hour until the red bean thickens.
  2. After red bean thickens, you put it into a new pot and mash it until it becomes mushy and gooey.
  3. Then cook the corn normally and just cut the corn into tiny cubes (side of the corn)
  4. Then the corn and red beans are ready to be added into Ice Kacang.
  5. Get a medium sized bowl and add the mushy red beans at the base of the bowl. Then add a mountain of finely shaved ice on top of the red beans.
  6. Next, you add ⅔ cups of condensed milk and ‘drool’ the condensed milk over the shaved ice.
  7. For food colouring, you add 2 cups of sugar into a separate small bowl, then add 3 drops of a food colouring you choose to make. (For example, 3 drops of red, then in a separate bowl add 2 cups of sugar again, then add 3 drops of blue, etc)
  8. After finishing making the food colouring, you again ‘drool’ over the mountain of ice and condensed milk. You also can 'drool' a little corn and red beans over to give a better flavor to this dessert.
  9. It is ready to be eaten!

 

A good Ice Kachang is one where the ice is cleanly shaved into very small bits, it should just melt in your mouth together with the sweet tasting syrup and condensed milk. As for ingredients, the more variety the better Ice Kachang will taste. If you have these steps perfected, you will taste multiple textures every time you take a mouthful of this.

photo credit: http://img.insing.com/FoodDrink/tried-tested/ice_kachang_AnniePeanut1.jpg
photo credit: https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/-vVsbligu62I/Txkn4yx6VVI/AAAAAAAA768/VzDFvYqu5hw/s800/taiwan-shaved-ice-5.jpg
photo credit: http://crazykoreancooking.com/sites/default/files/DSRBAA02.JPG

In Science, we were given a task to design a Newton Vehicle that is made out of scrap materials and it has to travel for at least 1.5 meters.


Gravity is a force that pulls/attracts two objects towards each other. Gravity acts everywhere that has force between all objects in the universe that has mass. Friction happens when two surfaced rub on each other. There are 4 types of friction, sliding friction, fluid friction, static friction and rolling friction. Sliding friction happens when 2 objects slide over each other, solid friction is when a solid object slide through a liquid. Whilst static friction is when the 2 objects aren't moving. When an object rolls across a surface, it is called rolling friction. Newton's first law of motion is also known as Inertia, the greater mass an object has, the greater the inertia, which means it requires more force to change it's motion. Newton's first law of motion says that an object wouldn't move until you exert an equal force to it. For example, if you kick a soccer ball in the grass, it would move, because it wouldn't just move by itself without someone exerting a force to it. Newton's second law of motion states that you will need to exert more force on an object that has more mass. For example, when you are pushing a shopping cart, one shopping cart contains one apple and the other shopping cart contains 2 cartons of milk. You will need to exert more force on the shopping cart with 2 cartons of milk because it has more mass than the shopping cart with the apple. Newton's third law of motion explains that for every force, there is a reaction force that is equal in size and opposite in direction. It means that when you push an object, it pushes back in the opposite direction equally hard. For example, if a person sits down on a chair, the chair is giving the same amount of force to the person. If the chair gives more force than the person is giving, the person would be flying up the chair by now, and if the person is giving more force than what the chair is giving, the person would've already crashed into the chair. One of the topics in physics that will be very important to us to keep in mind as we design our vehicle is the mass of the vehicle, because we have a lot of mass on the vehicle, our vehicle might not even to be able to travel 1.5 meters. So, the lesser mass our vehicle will have, the lesser force we will need to exert on our vehicle. The other topic in physics that will also be important to us whilst creating our vehicle is Friction, if we allow our vehicle to move on an area with more friction then it will slow our vehicle down, which will lead to our vehicle not being able to reach 1.5 meters. Our group's goal is to have a very light weighted vehicle because we will need to exert lesser force on our vehicle. Science

 

 

 

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Hello. I am a German teenager living in the year 1585 AD. My parents were Protestants, and my grandparents were Catholic. This morning when I was walking to school, a huge UFO landed in a wheat field in front of me. I went over to investigate the UFO, and suddenly an alien popped out from the UFO. This creature, surprisingly, speaks perfect English and this alien seemed especially interested in belief systems and asked me to explain why me and my parents are Protestants, but my grandparents were Catholic.

I started to tell him that different people had different beliefs and my parents and I happened to be a Protestant against the Catholic church. My parents and I had reasons for being a Protestant. One of the many reasons is because the Catholic church needed the money to finish building St Peters, a catholic church in Rome, and so the popes (head of church) started to sell indulgences, which means if you do or if someone dies and have done a very bad sin, you can pay it off with money, my parents and I also believed that Jesus is the true head of church. But for Catholics, they think that Popes are the head of the church. Like I said before, the Popes would sell indulgences in the church and Luther thought it was very wrong to be selling them because churches weren’t supposed to ‘bribe’ pilgrims money to use it for their own. Popes also would sell Simony, the more money you pay, the better job you’ll be able to get in the church, popes would also charge pilgrims if they wanted to pray to an holy object. Again, Luther thought it was very wrong for the churches to be doing that and so he wanted to purify the church, so he wrote 95 theses about the church, meaning to say, he wrote 95 arguments against the church. My parents and I also became Protestants because the popes really changed our minds because they totally are not doing what they are supposed to do. They are supposed to be god’s messenger, but they really care more about their wealth and power than their job, they also behaved like royalty instead of god’s servant. Of course, there were many other influences, my parents and I got from, for example, Jan Hus, John Wycliffe, Desiderius Erasmus and Martin Luther. They were all reformers.

And so my parents and I had many reasons why we are Protestants and not Catholics. My grandparents obviously was born earlier than my parents and I, so they probably wouldn’t have known what to do and since they think that the pope is the head of the church. Which they would think, is similar to god because they were god’s messenger and my grandparents would believe that they are able to communicate with god. They would of course do the things the popes want them to do and they would ‘worship’ the popes, instead of going against them, because popes back then had a lot more power than they do now.

 

The 7 minute challenge is a challenge for us to run for 7 minute straight without stopping. If we get tired we would either choose to just jog or just walk. But Mr. Berger encourages us to at least jog. At the start of the year, I really didn't care about the 7 minute challenge. Because, my foot was hurt and I didn't think it was such a big deal. My goal for 7 minute challenge is to get to Gold medal because I am really close to it right now, and no I obviously didn't reach my goal, that's why it's my goal. But after a while I thought it was a pretty big of a deal because you can get 'medals.' Right now, I am at the Silver medal and is at 7.81 kilometers, I'm nearly at the gold medal, which is 10 kilometers. Every flag to flag counts as 100 meters and every 7 minute run I would get 1.1 meter or more. At the very first time of the 7 minute challenge, I didn't run at all and instead I just walked because my foot was hurt and for today's 14 minute challenge, I didn't run much either because there was a basketball game right after this. If I ran in today's 14 minute challenge and the first 7 minute challenge I would've already been at 10 meter (Gold.)  I had a few successes for example I ran about 1.3 m each time and so now I'm getting closer to Gold medal. My overall impression on the 7 minute run is, okay. I wouldn't mind if we did it, but I also kind of mind. You might ask why? Because, I honestly love running and running is my favorite sport, but when I'm doing the 7 minute run, I also feel like I need to be first (My character) but sometimes I'm really not in the mood for it or if I'm really tired I don't participate in it at all.

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yearbook cut outIt has officially been around two months that I’m in yearbook class, I learned a lot during these two months, I've learned the different aspects of photography, how to brighten the photos by changing the ISO or using Photoshop. I've also learnt how to take excellent group photos and also learnt how to make a yearbook spread. I also have set some goals I would like to achieve in quarter 2.

 

During the first two months of yearbook, I have learned the different angles that you can take photos in, for example, you can stand on the table and take a really high angle of people playing basketball, or you can go to a super low angle and just catch the photos of the basketball player’s foot and if you don’t like how any of the photos turn out, you can just take the photo normally. In photography I also learned that when we take photos, we should use the rules of thirds, the rules of thirds is that you have to imagine whenever you take photos there will always be a grid, and you always put the person/object at each intersections of the grids, that way the photo will look gorgeous. In the areas you take photos in, when you take a photo and it’s either way too bright or way too dark, then you have to change the ISO, the ISO allows you to make the picture turn out brighter or turn out darker. The higher ISO you put the brighter the picture will turn out. In photography, we also learnt how to take group photos and what makes the group photo turn out to look good, you have to make people’s postures look good. For that to happen, you have to direct them to put their hands on their lap, sit up straight and look at the camera. The group photo also has to look neat, meaning to say that the order of height shouldn't be, tall, short, tall, short, because the photo will look like dominoes if you do that. Instead, if you change the order a little bit by putting the short people at the front then the photo will look much better instead of tall, short, tall, short.

 

In this two months of yearbook, I've also learnt how to use Photoshop. Like I said in the paragraph above, if your photos has bad lighting then you can use the ISO, but an alternative is to change the exposure’s of photos in Photoshop, you can make it lighter or darker by using ‘screen’ in Photoshop. Also, if the photos look a little too dull, you can play around with changing the tones in Photoshop by choosing ‘overlay’ and coloring the photos a bit more to make it not look too dull. Another way to not make the photo look too dull is to play around with the saturation of the picture, it is a little similar with changing the tones of the picture because you both of them allows us to add more/less color of the picture, but if you put too much saturation to the person/object, it will be either way too dark or light of their own color, but this is also another way to make the photos not too dull too. I've also learnt how to fix back-lit photos, which means if I took a photo and the camera was focusing on the background and the main object/person is very dark, you can change the image adjustments, by using shadows/highlights. You can also sharpen the image, by sharpening the image you will make the image clearer and make it look a little more professional, but using too much sharpening will change the effect of the photo and make the photo look a little odd because by sharpening too much of it, the ‘grains’ of the photos will be visible. In Photoshop, we also can cut-out images, I've struggled doing cut-outs because it’s one of the hardest skills you should have when you’re working with Photoshop, you can use the magnetic tool to cut the picture out. But when I’m working with Photoshop I have other skills that I’m better at, for example, changing the saturation of the photos, also remembering to not make it too dull/too saturated.

 

Similar to Photoshop, we have also worked in in-design. We make spreads in in-design, in the spread there will be a ‘template’ in it to guide us on how to make the spread. The ‘template’ has purple lines that divides the page into 6 columns, and there is a red line by the column, called ‘the bleed line.’ When we are making a background for the spread, we should pass the photos to the bleed line, because if the printing people prints the yearbook, some parts of the background might be cut off. I have also learnt how to add texts to the spread, by clicking the ‘T’ button at the left side of in-design, allowing us to write texts on the spread. Also, if you want to add a picture, you have to use the rectangle tool and draw where you want your photos to be, after that you click ‘place’ which allows us to add the image. When you need to zoom re-size the image, you drag the lines of the images, but we have to remember that every time we do that, we HAVE to always click ‘shift button’ because if you forget to do this, the photo will turn out looking very deformed.

 

My goal for the next two to three months if to get better at Photoshop cut-outs because right now, I’m horrible at it, every time I make a cut-out, Photoshop would quit on me and just connect the two dots together, which leads to my photo being half cut out. Another goal I have is to take excellent photos of basketball, soccer, badminton, baseball, swimming and volleyball team photos. I would also want excellent photos in our spreads. My goal is also to make my spreads successful and not a failure, because I really want this year’s yearbook to look amazing. Another goal I would really like to achieve is for my in-design skills to improve because I was never born artistic and so I really don’t know how to make my spreads look good, even if I have a good caption/texts and excellent photos, I wouldn't know how to make my spread look good. So these are my goals for quarter 2 and I’m hoping to achieve it.